Original article by Angie Pullano, Fusion Dog Training
Pulling only works for dogs if people let it work for them – without a human on the other end of the leash there is no pulling, just going. Does your dog ever strain to reach that just-out-of-reach spot to sniff and you give up more leash or walk towards it to let her smell it? What about if it’s raining and you’re in a hurry to get from your car to indoors or if she sees another person or dog that she just has to greet– do you let her drag you? If so, you just taught her that pulling works!
Patience is a huge part of being an effective dog trainer. Resolve that you will not take a single step forward, give up extra inches of the leash, or hold your arm out farther for your dog to get closer to where they want to go. In fact, stop moving before she hits the end of the leash when you can tell she’s about to – no point in letting her catch you off-balance and being able to pull you a couple more steps towards her goal. This is called the “Be a Tree” method. When practicing, allot a certain amount of time to it instead of setting a goal distance or destination. If you become frustrated, abort the session. The first few times you may not make it out of your driveway! Below I will describe a more advanced technique to get you and your dog walking together as a team but “Be a Tree” alone will eliminate most of the motivation for pulling.
Develop alternate plans for how you will handle pulling outside of training sessions as well as exercise needs if walking on leash is typically the only exercise your dog gets. Dogs typically easily discriminate between various articles of “clothing” and can quickly learn that pulling is OK on, say, a harness or Flexi leash, but not ok on a regular leash and collar. Use alternate “clothing” items when you’re in a hurry and/or don’t want to devote the time to training and just want to walk. Using a standard leash as “reins” by looping it around your dog’s neck works well for short periods (caught between too many distractions, in the rain, etc). The more consistent you are that pulling never works on the collar/leash combo you want to use for loose leash walking, the quicker you will see results.
If even after learning proper bracing and leash holding techniques you still find yourself being dragged more than a foot (some dogs have learned to master the “step back and leap forward” dragging technique or are simply just too big/strong for their owners), using a special training collar or harness is recommended for safety and for training effectiveness. Choker chains, prong collars, gentle leaders (head halters), and front-leash attachment harnesses can all be effective when introduced and used properly. Note that most dogs can and will learn to acclimate and pull on all of these devices if the underlying problem (improper leash handling and/or training techniques) is not addressed. Some devices take more time to condition the dog to before use (gentle leaders – dogs typically hate things on their faces), and others require better training and leash handling skills than others (choker collars typically require the highest skill level to use properly and the leash is handled much differently than when using a gentle leader or harness).
In addition, it is important to take into account the dog’s temperament, physical sensitivity, and any other behavior issues into consideration. Too strong of a correction can scare a dog and should be avoided, in some dogs a physical correction can actually heighten a reactive - excited, fearful, or aggressive response, and dogs who tend to circle when excited usually react badly to gentle leaders and harness that spin them around. Please consult with a person who is knowledgeable about the various choices that can help you choose the correct one for your pet, show you how to introduce it properly, and the proper leash techniques for it. Don’t just slap it on your dog and hope for a miracle. It is our responsibility to ensure our dog’s safety and well-being and that includes trying to avoid scaring them with a new training collar as well as not letting our dogs choke the air out of themselves on a standard flat collar.
Red Light/Green Light Game: this method works best using a standard collar and leash. We are teaching our dogs to begin to yield to collar pressure, that to get us to move forward that they must return to “heel” position next to our left side, and that working as a team gets rewarded. Tight leash = Red Light or Stop, Next to your left leg = Green Light or Go. Your dog can be anywhere in a half circle on your left side – as long as the leash is not tight. She should not be in your path crossing in front of you nor try to dart behind you to your right side. Treat crossing the line from your left to right side as a tight leash and stop. Try to block her from actually crossing it by moving your arm away slightly but don’t change the placement of your hand on the leash. Hold the leash in your left hand at a point where the length of it is just enough that if fully extended with her in front of you, that her rear end isn’t able to get past your left leg (any more length than that means its much more difficult to prevent crossing in front of you). For most people this is about 3-4 feet. The loop of the leash can also be held in your left hand to prevent it from dangling so that you are holding both the loop and a farther down section of the leash.
Treats aren’t necessary but it makes training easier, quicker, and less frustrating for both dog and handler. They should be easily accessible (in a bait bag, large pocket, or fanny pack) for easy re-loading into your right hand. Most people underestimate the quantity of treats used in the initial phase of training for best effect because of worries about fading them in the long run. (Some dogs will work for their standard kibble - but the more motivation to figure out the game, the easier it is for the trainer. Please see the article on using treats in training). Feed the treats from your right hand, but reach across your body and always feed next to your left leg. If you get lazy and let your dog meet your hand partially in front of you, she will start to pop in front of you in anticipation and trip you. Using a clicker speeds up learning and if used, should be held in your left hand along with the leash. If not using the clicker, use a marker word like “Yes,” also always paired with a food reward, to help speed up the process. When a dog can more easily identify what she did to earn the treats, it helps her to repeat it.
Start off as in “Be a Tree” and freeze when the leash gets tight. When she turns back towards you (be patient and wait – the first few times on every walk take the longest), click and offer the food reward next to your left leg. You may need to lure her in with the food to get her back to your leg, but don’t let her eat it until she is there! As soon as she has the food in her mouth (and therefore she’s also back on your left side), start walking again. Some dogs you may need to wait an extra second or so for them to chew/swallow first. Repeat until there is very little hesitation between stopping & her turning back towards you. Usually you will see the dogs start to glance at you to see if they are going to get a click.
At this point, try adding yielding to collar pressure. If she’s in front of you, after she’s turned around, move your left arm back slowly to apply gentle pressure on her collar, towards your left leg. Don’t actually pull her back with the leash – otherwise you are doing to her exactly what you don’t want her to do to you. Keep the pressure low but constant. It might take her awhile to figure out what to do. When she moves towards the direction you’re pulling, Click, release the pressure and feed next to your left leg. As she starts to yield to the pressure more quickly, ask her to move a step or two with the pressure going towards your leg before clicking and releasing the pressure. If she stops behind you, or darts off to the side because of a distraction, the same principle applies – apply gentle pressure in the direction of your left side, C/T (click & treat) when she yields to it. Gradually have her move with the pressure all the way back to your side before clicking. Soon you will start to see her starting to move back to your left side on her own, before you even get a chance to apply the pressure! She has figured out that getting back to your left side is wonderful because she gets clicks, treats and it makes you start walking again!
To ensure that she doesn’t start to think that the game is to get the leash tight so that she can go back to your left side to collect cookies, start to C/T at other “good decision” moments while walking. This can be something as simple as walking next to your left leg at the same speed as you for a few paces, looking at you attentively, rushing forward but correcting herself by slowing down before hitting the end of the leash, starting off for a distraction but correcting herself and turning back before she hits the end of the leash, turning with you when you change directions, sitting when you ask before crossing a street, etc. If you like it, click it!
Start to fade the food rewards first on the straight-aways and in places with low distraction levels. Bump up the reinforcement frequency still when encountering big distractions for your dog like other dogs, people, squirrels, birds, or blowing leaves. Remember to praise your dog and tell her that you like what she’s doing even if you don’t C/T it every time or don’t have food with you.
Healthy oral hygiene is important for our pet for multiple reasons. Clean teeth are not only cosmetically pleasing; they also promote good smelling breath and better long-term health.
If poor oral health causes an infection in our pet’s teeth or gums, it can spread to their kidneys. This is especially true in cats. Older cats often suffer from kidney failure, which can be caused by an oral infection spreading to kidneys. Valvular heart disease can also be caused by poor dental hygiene. Bacteria from a pet’s mouth can travel to its heart valves, causing them to change shape and become leaky.
Original article by Marybeth Bittel, Tails Magazine
When I was a young music student growing up in Chicago’s western suburbs, my family adopted an Airedale puppy we named Beethoven. I picked Beethoven out at the shelter because all the other puppies rushed forward to greet me, while he hid shyly in the corner. Most trainers agree that’s not necessarily the ideal benchmark for selecting a furry friend, but we got lucky. Beethoven matured into an outgoing, even-tempered, fun, and affectionate family member who sternly guarded our front yard one minute, and romped through our sprinkler the next.
But then came the Fourth of July. Fireworks went off at random intervals around the clock. We discovered that when it came to loud noises and ear-popping explosions, Beethoven was absolutely terrified.
At first we wondered how this could have happened. After all, we’d never left our beloved boy outside while pyrotechnics peppered the sky. He hadn’t been exposed to extreme noises as a puppy. In all likelihood, Beethoven’s fireworks aversion, like so many pet fears and phobias, was just one of those things that took hold when his sensitive hearing encountered a sudden trigger he could neither see nor anticipate.
So we did what numerous pet parents do when their cherished companion is struggling: we cuddled him, coddled him, and cooed comforting words of reassurance. We also sat, feeling helpless, watching him cower and hide as the problem held steady each year. In fact, through all the years of Beethoven’s life, he never overcame this disabling sense of distress, no matter how soothing or supportive we attempted to make his surrounding environment.
When my husband and I began working with abused rescue dogs, we noticed that most arrived with an array of deep-rooted anxieties acquired over time. One Bichon was terrified of rotary fans. A Shih Tzu mix became a jittery mess during thunderstorms. A sweet and docile Foxhound routinely hid from houseplants. These fears ran the gamut, but they had one thing in common: They were exceedingly real to the dog, and they had a great impacts on the entire family.
We began working with local animal behaviorists, and that’s when we learned an invaluable truth: The way we, as caregivers, react to our pet’s anxieties can actually perpetuate the patterns.
Why would this be? As Abe Mashal, owner of Marine Corps Dog Training in St. Charles, explains, “Dogs form extremely solid bonds with their humans. That means most canines are highly attuned to any type of interaction with their human ‘pack’ members.” So when something a dog is doing earns our attention—whether that attention takes the form of praise, pampering, or peevish irritation— the behavior is often unintentionally reinforced.
“Reinforcement,” a common term in the world of animal behavioral training, is really just another word for strengthening. In reality, a reinforcer can be anything that strengthens a behavior.
So for those of you thinking, “I never reinforce my dog’s non-stop barking! I scold her on the spot,” see if these examples sound familiar:
“Every interaction with your dog has the potential to teach and reinforce, merely because you’re paying attention,” explains Sara Swan, owner of Narnia Pet Behavior & Training in Plainfield. How can you tell if this is happening? Simply observe over time. Dogs continue to engage in behaviors that provide some sort of payoff. If you’re dealing with a fear or anxiety response that’s ongoing—such as Beethoven’s abhorrence of fireworks—some kind of inducement is likely contributing to the pattern. In Beethoven’s case, his reactions earned him almost round-the-clock nurturing.
Fortunately, we as dog parents can leverage these same dynamics when it comes to re-programming undesirable behaviors. Let’s say your 80-pound “lap dog” excitedly jumps on you whenever you come home from work. When you withhold the coveted attention—immediately going back out the door, or turning your back on him—many pups gradually begin to seek out a different behavior.
The same thing can work with a fear response. If your pet is terrified of your Swiffer mop, for example, try propping it against the family room couch and just leaving it there. Then, simply act like it’s no big deal and go about your daily routine, even if your pup exhibits an unsettled reaction. Very gradually, over time, as your furry friend begins to approach the mop with quiet but tentative curiosity, reward that calm behavior with brief praise or a small treat. Keep it up, and eventually your dog can learn that “mop = calm = good.”
Helping your dog manage his stress is one of the keys to having a happy and healthy pet. If your animal companion has specific challenges beyond what you’re comfortable handling, always reach out to a certified animal behaviorist who can help you develop targeted interventional techniques that will work on your pet’s unique needs. It will not only help with unwanted behaviors, but strengthen your bond, as well.
Safe, Drug Free Ways To Soothe Your Pet’s Stress
The Thundershirt. The ThunderShirt leverages the age-old principle of swaddling an infant to promote calming reassurance. Simply fasten this snug, stretchy shirt around your pet’s ribcage. During anxious episodes of panting or hyperventilation, it provides ongoing sensory feedback that suppresses this common panic response. ( Thundershirt.com )
Music or ASMR. As a musician, I can attest firsthand that deep, resonant tones often work wonders on a nervous pup. You can also try leveraging something called ASMR (Autonomous Sensory Meridian Response), which is promoted by many hypnotists and human sleep therapists. ASMR is a subjective, perceptual phenomenon characterized by a distinct calming or scalp- tingling sensation in response to quiet, seemingly mundane sound triggers. Certain pets appear especially receptive, and may even be lulled to sleep. To gauge effectiveness, try playing low, calming music or ASMR audio with your dog in the room. Use a meditation CD, or visit YouTube to access ASMR recordings by reputable “ASMRtists” such as The Waterwhispers.
Calming Sprays. Help create a relaxing environment for your pet by using a calming spray on their bedding or by plugging in a calming spray diffuser. Many cats and dogs experience reduced anxiety and stress after being exposed to these non- sedating sprays, which use soothing scents such as lemongrass, cinnamon, and lavender to encourage relaxation.